PR BAHASA INGGRIS :
Example of narrative text :
Once upon time, a man had a wonderful parrot. There was no other parrot like it. The parrot could say every word, except one word. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The name of the place was Catano.
The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.
At the first, the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Although he tried hard to teach, the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano.
One day, after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano, the man really got very angry. He could not bear it. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Then he continued to humble; “You know, I will cut the chicken for my meal. Next it will be your turn, I will eat you too, stupid parrot”. After that he left the chicken house.
The next day, the man came back to the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. At the moment, the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.
Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. In that parrot story, the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. A man and his parrot took place once time.
Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. It will show the crisis, rising crisis and climax of the story. In the parrot story, paragraph 2, 3, 4 are describing the complication. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. To fix this problem, the man attempted to teach the bird. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication.
Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story, readers see the problem is finished. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot.
THE LEGEND OF TOBA LAKE
Once upon time, there was a handsome man. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He liked fishing. One day, he caught a fish. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. The fish begged him to set it free.
Batara Guru could not bear it. He made the fish free. As soon as it was free, the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.
They were married happily. They had two daughters. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He could not control his mad. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The daughters were crying. They found their mother and talked her about it.
The mother was very annoyed. Batara Guru broke his promise. The mother was shouting angrily. Then the earth began to shake. Volcanoes started to erupt. The earth formed a very big hole. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then this lake is known as Toba lake.
Note on Narrative Generic Structure
ORIENTATION: The first paragraph presents information about the participant of the story. In literary term, the participant is called as character. Orientation commonly introduces information about WHO, WHERE and WHEN.
COMPLICATION: Paragraph two explores the niche of the story. That is conflict among the characters of the story. This conflict will involve physical and psychological conflict. The conflict is actually the heart of any narrative text. It will drive the participant to make effort in solving the crisis.
RESOLUTION: The last paragraph closes the story with solving the crisis. However it can be better or worse.
Example of descriptive text :
Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and lowers each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however, does not extend to his appearance, for he spends most of his time indoors watching television and growing fat.
He enjoys TV commercials, especially those for Meow Mix and 9 Lives. His familiarity with cat food commercials has led him to reject generic brands of cat food in favor of only the most expensive brands.
Gregory is as finicky about visitors as he is about what he eats, befriending some and repelling others. He may snuggle up against your ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite trousers. Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, as many cat experts think, but to humiliate me because he is jealous of my friends.
After my guests have fled, I look at the old fleabag snoozing and smiling to himself in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his obnoxious, but endearing, habits.
Example of descriptive teks :
THE AMAZING TAJ MAHAL IN INDIA
Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.
Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.
The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.
Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.
Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.
Example of hortatory exposition text :
Watch your Kids While Watching TV
Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. However, is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is, of course, absolutely “Yes” and that should be done by all parents. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from, especially violence, pornography, consumerism and so on.
Recently, a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption, stress, and short sleep duration.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the possibility of being aggressive.
Meanwhile, many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.
Considering some facts mentioning above, protect your children with the following tips:
- Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day
- Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms
- Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch
- Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show
Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example
Firstly, we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. In many social activities, hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought, sales letter, advertising, speech campaign, and news advertorial.
Thesis: The writer’s thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. In the first paragraph, the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show.
Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher’s personality. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much.
Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments, the text is completed with the writer’s recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV.
Basically, both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. Both take place as argumentative essays. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. If it is a hortatory text, it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition, it will be closed with restatement of the writer’s first paragraph.
We often hear lots of stories from road regarding people taking spill on motorcycle when they are riding without using helmet. Mostly the riders badly end up in mess.
Wearing a fitted protective helmet offers many benefits which reduces the negative aspects of riding. First and the most important is that wearing the correct helmet can save a rider’s life, physical ability, family pain, and money. The recommended designs of motorcycle helmets can provide total protection. They not only protect riders from getting a worse road injured accident but also from flying bugs, such as rain, sleet, mud and other potential projectiles.
Second, wearing a helmet can gives the raiders a matter of style. Helmets give the opportunity for rider to express the image they may want to project when riding on they way. This benefit may not be important to some people, but to others, it means a lot and important. By choosing the most appropriate helmet from all of the various styles, such as beanie, shorty, German, and many others, wearing a helmet which can projecting an image is an inherent crucial part of motorcycling and help riders feel more confident when riding on the road.
However, what most important is wearing helmet when riding is a matter of using it properly. Bikers should use the helmets which are fixed to their head. It is really not good if they places simply the helmets on the head without settling them properly. The bikers should fasten the helmet correctly to their head in order to get safe and comfort.
How can we see the generic structure of the hortatory example above?
Thesis: the importance of wearing helmet which is stated in the first paragraph
Argumentative: Wearing helmet gives a total protection and giving a chance in imaging self which presented in the second paragraph.
Recommendation: Bikers should wear helmet properly to get the benefits.
Example of spoof in funny story :
The Zoo Job Story
He was terrified.
Sooner the lion gathered itself and prepared to pounce. The clown was so scared. He could do nothing and he began to run round and round the cage with the lion close and closer behind. Finally, the lion could catch him. The clown started screaming and yelling, “Help me, help me!”, but the lion was quick and pounces. The clown soon found himself flat on his back looking up at the angry lion and suddenly he heard a voice from the lion’s mouth;”Shut up you idiot! Do you want to get us both fired?”.
The Spying parrot
A guy was having marital problems. He and the wife were not communicating at all and he had lonesome so he went to a pet store thinking a pet might help.
In the store he came to parrots. As he wandered down the rows of parrots he noticed one with no feet. Surprised he mutters “I wonder how he hangs onto the perch?”
The parrot said “With my prick, you dummy.”
The guy was startled and said “You certainly talk well for a parrot.”
The parrot said “Of course, I’m very well educated. I can discuss politics, sports, religion, most any subject you wish.”
The guy said “Gee, you sound like just what I was looking for.”
Then the guy bought the parrot and for three months things go great. When he came home from work the parrot told him about the recent and hottest news.
One day the guy come home from work and the parrot waved a wing at him and said “Come in and shut the door.”
The guy said “What’s up?”
The parrot said “I don’t know how to tell you this, but the mailman came today. I saw that your wife answered the door in her transparent gown and he kissed her right on the lips.”
The guy said “He did? Did you see?”
The parrot said ” Yes, Then he pulled her gown down… and …..”
“My God, what happened next?”The guy said curiously to know next.
Then the parrot replied “I don’t know. I got a hard-on and fell off my perch.”
Example of analytical exposition on accredited school :
Why is It Important to Choose the Accredited School?
Most of teenagers need to go to school and there are a lot of schools over there. Nowadays, schools grow to offer plenty of choice; private and state ones. However it is a hard choice since there are many factors which need to be considered before making the selection. Some will be influenced by friends; because some friend got to certain school than we go to there too. Some prefer to choose certain school because of the closer distance. In fact, the primary decisive matter for selecting school is whether the school has been accredited or not.
Why is important to choose an accredited school? Well, accredited schools have an edge over the unaccredited schools. This label of Accredited School has an impact in employment opportunities. As result, if there are two or more students with similar qualifications, the student who comes from the accredited school will have an edge over the other candidate. Student from an accredited school has more open door than student with an accredited one.
Many students select certain school depending more on short term factors like friend influence and short distance from home. It is not bad since commuting actually needs much cost. Choosing school which is closer to home will save time, energy and money. However if that school is not accredited, the time and money spent along studying seems to be waste in the long term because it could become a limiting factor in gaining future opportunities.
Accredited school is not the only factor which will drive student’s success. Personality and characterization are very important too. However a student with good personality who comes from an accredited school is better than the others.
Analytical Exposition Analysis on the Generic Structure
Analytical exposition is one of argumentative texts which present some supporting idea on why certain writer’s opinion is important. The opinion is formulated in a thesis which needs to prove by selecting arguments.
The above example of analytical exposition about accredited school has the following generic structure:
Thesis: it is the main topic of discourse in analytical exposition essay. Commonly the thesis will be placed in the first paragraphs. It also functionalize of introduction of the text. From the text above we see that choosing school will be wiser and safer if it is based on the status of the school; accredited or not.
Arguments: the arguments are the heart of an analytical exposition. The absence of argument, analytical will just talk nothing since a thesis must be evaluated, whether it is true or false later, it does not matter. From the analytical exposition sample above, we see an accredited school graduate will hold better opportunity. Additionally choosing school based on short term interests seem to be less benefit in the end.
Reiteration: it is the writer’s thesis which is re-stated in another word. The purpose is to strengthen the thesis. From the text above, we realize that choosing an accredited school is really important.
Jakarta as a Bad Working Place for Expatriates
Jakarta is the second-worst place for expatriates to work in outside of the United States of America, Canada and Western Europe. It is according to a recent report published by Businessweek.
The Businessweek report ranked emerging markets that might be challenging to move into due to their level of pollution, disease, political violence and availability of good and services.
The report ranked Jakarta second, just below lagos in Nageria and above Riyadh Saudi Arabia, saying the threat of violence from extremest, in particular, was serious drawback to living in Jakarta. Bombings targeting foreign interests in Jakarta, such as the JW Marriot hotel bombing in 2003, have been repeated elsewhere in the city.
The report said despite problem common to many developing cities such as the risk of disease, poor sanitation, and excessive pollution, Indonesia can be an enticing location.
In response, the Jakarta administration took the report positively, saying it could spur the administration to improve its performance.
(Simplified from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/04/15/)
nexter five, kaLo mau yang Lengkapnya Liat di :